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INFO PORTAL Biotracing

GENERAL INFORMATION


Malign testicular tumors are comparatively rare making up for only 1% of all cancer cases. But mostly young men between the ages of 20 to 45 are affected. In this age group it is the most common malign tumor type, cases rising especially in industrial countries.

Because the survival rate for this disease is extremely high (96% after 5 years, 95% after 10 years compared to general population, source: Leitlinienprogramm Onkologie, 2020) it is especially important to consider short- and long-term toxicity of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

ORIGIN


Testicular tumors develop mostly through faulty ripening of primordial germ cells, which are produced in the testicles.

The result is uninhibited cell division and production which can lead to tumor development. The accumulation of these cells is called germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS).
Because testicular tumors origin in 95% of cases from germ cells the terms “testicular tumor”, “testicular cancer” (TC) and “germ cell tumor” (GCT) are often used synonymously.

In rare cases scattered testicular tissue somewhere else in the body can be affected. In this case there is no tumor at the testicles but at another location in the body. This type of tumor is called extragonadal germ cell tumor.

CAUSES


Although the causes for testicular tumors are largely unknown there are certain risk factors which can make this type of tumor more likely to occur.

These are among others:

  • Undescended testicles
  • Family disposition
  • Testicular cancer at one of both testicles in the past
  • Infertility
  • Klinefelter syndrome
  • Germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS)

CLASSIFICATION


Testicular tumors can be classified according to the type of cell they origin from into seminoma and non-seminoma. Mixed tumors are also classified as non-seminoma.

The classification is an important factor for treatment decisions.

DIAGNOSTICS Biotracing

SYMPTOMS


Most patients have a suspicion due to an abnormality discovered through a self-examination of the testicles and decide to go for a check-up. Symptoms can be but are not limited to:

  • palpable, pain free, hard swellings or knots on or at the testicle
  • a heavy or pulling sensation at the testicle or the groin
  • In rare cases: pain, back pain, dyspnoe (troubled breathing, shortness of breath), weight loss, headaches, gynecomastia (enlarging of mammary gland) or hyperthyroidism

PRIMARY DIAGNOSTICS


The diagnostics are usually based on a guideline like the European Guideline on Testicular Cancer (see Links).

First steps are a visual examination, palpation of the testicle by a general practitioner or urologist to determine size and firmness of the abnormality, followed by an ultrasound examination. For further diagnostics blood is collected from the patient to determine the classical serum markers AFP, beta-HCG and LDH. At this point M371 supports the primary diagnosis.

The blood profile is completed by measuring testosterone, FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone) levels.

If the suspicion of a testicular tumor or germ cell tumor is hardening further diagnostic measures like a CT scan of the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis as well as examinations for brain or bone metastasis can be started.

For the final diagnosis suspicious testicle tissue is extracted and examined.

A sperm analysis as well as cryopreservation can be discussed with a doctor if the patient desires to have children later on and a potentially fertility impairing therapy is planned.

THERAPY Biotracing

THERAPY


Therapy decisions must be made individually.

The therapy decisions are usually orientated on a guideline like the European Guideline on Testicular Cancer (see Links). In most cases an orchiectomy must be conducted. This means surgically removing the tumor tissue and tissue that is affected. In many cases one testicle is fully removed. The patient is under full anesthesia for the procedure.

If the disease is initially already advanced and acutely life-threatening a chemotherapy can be considered as a first treatment step followed by the orchiectomy.

After the surgery further treatment steps must be discussed between patient and doctor and depend on the stage of the disease.

If there are no further metastasis present at that moment an adjuvant chemotherapy can be considered to reduce the risk of relapse. It is important to discuss pros and cons of this step with your doctor.

The decision between adjuvant therapy and surveillance strategy must be made on an individual basis.

If patient and doctor decide for an adjuvant therapy, either a cycle of chemotherapy or radiotherapy can be used.

FOLLOW-UP


After the surgery

The classical serum marker levels as well as M371 can be compared pre- and post-surgery for clues about the success of the surgery and if tumor tissue still resides in the body.

In the following years ...

About 5-10% of GCT patients need a relapse or salvage therapy at some point in their life. The main goal of monitoring is to detect and diagnose relapses as early as possible, especially in the first years after primary diagnosis. The diagnostic tools for monitoring are similar as for primary diagnosis from ultrasound examination to serum markers, radiology, or extended blood profiles.

In the later years after primary diagnosis the monitoring also covers the effects of late toxicity of the primary treatment of the tumor. A specific monitoring plan is set up for each patient which depends on original tumor state, age, and more factors.

WEBSITES Biotracing

LINKS


www.onkopedia.com

Website of the „Deutsche Gesellschaft für Hämatologie und Onkologie e.V.“ (German Society for hematology and oncology). Contains detailed information on germ cell tumors of men.

www.hodencheck.de

Information on testicular cancer specifically how to self-examine by the "Deutsche Gesellschaft für Urologie" (German Society for urology).
(This site is in German only)

www.hodenkrebs.de

Information and advice on how to live with testicular tumors for patients, relatives and medical professionals by the German interdisciplinary working group on testicular tumors.
(This site is in German only)

hodentumor.zweitmeinung-online.de

Platform where medical professionals can exchange opinions on their patients’ diagnostics and treatment.
(This site is in German only)

www.leitlinienprogramm-onkologie.de/leitlinien/hodentumoren

German guideline for the treatment of germ cell tumors.
(This site is in German only)

www.pate-hodenkrebs.de

German project for prevention and education about testicular diseases, directed especially towards young men.
(This site is in German only)

www.testicularcancerawarenessfoundation.org

Nonprofit organization informing about self-exams, support, and guidance for patients.

www.urologyhealth.org

Website by the Urology Care Foundation, powered by the American Urological Association offers further information on urological health including testicular cancer.

www.nhs.uk/conditions/testicular-cancer

The UK’s biggest health website powered by the British national health service. Offers further information on testicular cancer and treatment.

uroweb.org/guideline/testicular-cancer

Download the EAU Guideline on Testicular Cancer, powered by European Association of Urology.

GLOSSARY Biotracing

GLOSSARY


A


Abdomen

stomach, trunk

Ablatio testis

The complete removal of one or both testis. See orchiectomy

Adjuvant Therapy

Treatment that is given after primary therapy to lessen the chance of cancer coming back.

AFP

Alpha-Fetoprotein. A tumor marker that can indicate testicular tumors in particular non-seminoma tumors. The comparison of pre- and post-operative levels can give an indication if the surgery was successful.

B


Benign

A benign growth is not infiltrating the surrounding tissue, grows slowly and is not likely to be harmful.

Beta HCG

Human chorionic gonadotropine. Tumor marker measured in the blood serum of patients with suspected testicular tumors. Comparison of pre- and post-operative values can provide indications of the success of therapy. Used primarily to support the diagnosis of seminoma.

Bilateral

both sided

Biopsy

Diagnostic method for which tissue is removed and microscopically examined. Used for the diagnosis of cancer.

C


Carcinoma

Tumor disease originating from the surface tissue (epithelial cells). Makes up for approx. 80% of all malignant tumors.

Chemotherapy

Drug treatment for cancer in which cytostatic drugs are used.

Cisplatin

Cytostatic drug

Clinical study

Experimental investigation of a treatment method under specific conditions.

Computed tomography

Imaging procedure with which various body structures, for example the abdomen, can be depicted through X-rays. This procedure can be used to determine whether metastases are present in the body.

Contra indication

Factor that speaks against a particular therapy

Contralateral

On the opposite side of the body

Contrast medium

Used to improve the visualization of heavily perfused tumors or inflammation on CT or MRI.

Curative

Healing

Cytostatic

Natural or synthetic substances that slow down or stop cell growth which are used in chemotherapy.

Cytotoxicity, cytotoxic

Toxicity of a substance to living cells or tissues

D


Diagnostics

Doctrine that refers to the making of diagnoses. All examinations that lead to the determination of a disease.

Discordant

At odds, differing

Dissection

Surgical procedure

DNA (cf, c)

DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid. The molecule that carries genetic material. Consists of building blocks called nucleotides, each of which consists of one of four bases. DNA belongs to the nucleic acids and is usually present in double strands. DNA is usually located in the cell nucleus, but there are also other forms such as circulating free DNA or cfDNA (=cell free DNA), which originates, for example, from dead cells or tumor cells whose DNA is released into the bloodstream. cDNA = complementary DNA = DNA that is formed complementary to RNA.

Dyspnoea

Shortness of breath

E


Embryonic carcinoma

Category of germ cell tumors, see non-seminoma

Endothelium

Thin layer of cells lining blood vessels

Enucleation

Organ-preserving surgery on the testicle in which only part of the testicle is removed as opposed to ablatio testis.

Expression

= Gene expression. Process that leads from the genetic information (DNA) to the finished product, such as proteins, but also various RNA products.

Ex-situ

Outside of the body

Extragonadal

Not at the testes, located somewhere else in the body.

Extragonadal germ cell tumor

In rare cases, testicular tissue, i.e. germ cells, may be located outside the testes in other parts of the body. A tumor that develops from these tissues is called extragonadal germ cell tumor.

F


First-line therapy

The preferred and first treatment options initiated for a condition.

Follow-up

The scheduled follow-up of patients after a completed (cancer) treatment. The aim is, among other things, to monitor recurrence, complications and management of the disease in everyday life.

FSH

Follicle stimulating hormone. Hormone that is produced in the brain and influences the development and maturation of sperm.

G


Germ cell

Cells produced in the reproductive organs and used for reproduction.

Germ Cell Neoplasia in situ (GCNis)

Cell change in a testis that often precedes a testicular tumor.

Germ cell tumor

Arises from defective maturation of primordial germ cells. In 95% of cases the tumor arises from germ cells in the testes, therefore the term "testicular tumor" is often used synonymously with "germ cell tumor". A small fraction of testicular tumors origin from other cells, for example Leydig cell tumors or Sertoli cell tumors. In rare cases, germ cell tissue may be scattered in other parts of the body from which a tumor may develop, see extragonadal germ cell tumor.

Gonads

Part of the sexual organ in which sex hormones and germ cells are produced. In men: testicles

Granulocytes

Subgroup of white blood cells (leukocytes) and part of the immune system.

Gray

unit for radiation

Growing Teratoma Syndrome (GTS)

A syndrome which manifests as growing teratoma during or after chemotherapy.

H


Histology

Branch of biology, medicine and pathology. Diagnosis diseases through e.g. microscopic examination of tissue sections.

Hypogonadism

Hormonal dysfunction of the gonads. In men: Missing or reduced hormonal activity of the testicles.

I


Immunohistology, Immunohistochemical

Method for examining biological tissue by staining cell or tissue structures.

Infertility

Inability of a male or female to reproduce naturally, for example, due to impaired sperm production.

Inguinal

Of the groin

Inguinal testicles

A form of undescended testes in which the testes is located in the inguinal canal area.

In-situ

In the natural position in the body, located within the body

Intermediate

Located in between

International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG)

Provides the prognostic classification of metastatic germ cell tumors by which medicine is guided. (IGCCCG. 1997. International Germ Cell Consensus Classification: a staging system based on prognostic factors for metastatic germ cell carcinomas. International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group, J Clin Oncol, 15(2):594-603)

Intraepithelial

Between the epithelial layer (cells)

Invasive

Intervening in something, for example in the body

Ipsilateral

Lying on the same side of the body

J


K


Klinefelter Syndrome

Genetic disorder in which an extra X chromosome is present in the cells of the male body (XXY instead of XY).

L


Late relapse

Tumor recurrence after more than 2 years since first-line therapy.

LDH

Lactate dehydrogenase. Tumor marker measured in the blood serum of patients with suspected testicular tumors. Comparison of pre- and postoperative values can provide indications of tumor burden.

Lesion

Damage, injury or disorder of an organ, tissue or body part.

LH

Luteinizing Hormone. Hormone that is produced in the brain and stimulates the production of testosterone in the testes.

Liquid Biopsy

Examination of body fluids, e.g. blood, for certain markers that can give an indication for a specific disease. For example tumor-derived nucleic acids that may be present in the form of circulating tumor cells, free DNA (cfDNA), or miRNA.

Lymphography

Imaging procedure in which the lymph nodes and lymphatic channels are visualized with the aid of X-rays and contrast medium.

M


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Medical imaging technique used especially for imaging soft tissues and organs. It uses magnetic fields, magnetic field gradients and radio waves. It does not use X-ray or ionizing radiation which makes it less harmfull than CT scans.

Malign

Describes, among other things, the growth behaviour of a tumor. Tumors that invade and destroy the tissue around them and possibly develop metastases.

Malignancy

Malignant growth/tumor

Mature Teratoma

Type of germ cell tumor, subtype of teratoma

Metastasis, metastatic

Arise from cancer cells that have secreted from the original tumor. They form new daughter tumors in other parts of the body, which are called metastases.

microRNA (miRNA)

Short RNA molecules that are involved in the regulation of gene expression and can suppress certain genes (gene silencing).

miRNA-371a-3p

miRNA expressed by germ cell tumors in men, thereby providing a tumor marker for them.

Monitoring

Following a patient closely after treatment.

Morbidity

Describes the frequency of a disease.

N


Nephrotoxicity

The property of a substance to have a harmful effect on the kidney.

Neurotoxicity

The property of a substance to have a harmful effect on the nerves/nervous system.

Non-seminoma

Category of germ cell tumors. Also includes all mixed forms that are not pure seminomas, e.g. embryonal cell carcinoma, teratoma, chorionic carcinoma and others.

Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids consist of nucleotides and carry genetic information. They can exist as DNA or RNA.

O


Occult

hidden

Oligozoospermia

Means low sperm count in the ejaculate and may limit fertility.

Oncology

Field of medicine that deals with tumor diseases.

Orchiectomy

The removal of one or both testicles. Medical intervention for the treatment of testicular tumors.

P


Palpation

Examination by touching and feeling of organs located just below the surface of the body, in the case of testicular tumors, the testicles.

Pathohistological, Histopathology, pathohistological

Branch of pathology, study of pathological tissue changes.

Pathology

The study of diseases and their causes. Diagnoses are made by examining tissues and cells.

PEB

Chemotherapy with multiple cytostatic agents.

Persistent

Staying the same over a long period of time

Positron emission tomography (PET)

Medical imaging procedure in which lightly radioactive substances are absorbed into the body, making an image of metabolic processes visible earlier and more accurately in the body than other procedures. Often combined with CT.

Post-operative

After a surgery

Pre-operative

Before a surgery

Primary diagnostics

Examinations that may contribute to the initial diagnosis of a disease.

Primary tumor

An original tumor that precedes metastases.

Q


qPCR

Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, sometimes also referred to as real-time PCR. Molecular method in which DNA can be amplified and quantified.

R


Radiology

In radiology, diseases are diagnosed by means of imaging procedures. These include X-rays, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound examinations and others.

Radiotherapy

Also called radiation therapy. Medical treatment which uses ionizing radiation to treat cancer and kill malignant cells.

Re-evaluation

Re-evaluation of a patient's disease or condition as the disease progresses.

Regredient

In the case of disease progression, refers to the subsiding or regression of symptoms.

Relapse

Recurrence or relapse after initially successful treatment of a disease.

Remission

Attenuation of symptoms, signs of disease. Distinction between partial and full remission.

Resectate

Organ or tissue removed during resection/surgery.

Resection

Surgery in which an organ or tissue is removed.

Residual tumor

Part of the tumor that remains in the patient's body after treatment, since the tumor cannot be completely removed but only reduced.

Restaging

Evaluation of the patient's condition after all therapy procedures are initially completed to assess their effectiveness and side effects.

Rete testis-Infiltration

See Vascular invasion

Retroperitoneal Lymphadenectomy (RLA), laparoscopic RLA

Method of treatment for germ cell tumors. Can be the surgical removal of lymph nodes in the posterior abdominal cavity, but also diagnostic surgery. In the case of diagnostic surgery, the procedure can be performed laparoscopically and minimally invasive.

retroperitoneal, Retroperitoneum

Located in the anatomical space behind the peritoneum.

RNA (mi, m)

RNA = ribonucleic acid. Like DNA, it consists of nucleotides, which in turn are made up of four different bases. Unlike DNA, one of the bases, thymine, is swapped for uracil. RNA is usually, but not always, single-stranded. In the human body, RNA has many functions, for example, it serves as a messenger (mRNA) as a regulator of genes (miRNA) and is involved in the proteinbiosynthesis.

S


Salvage Therapy

Means "rescue therapy" and refers to the treatment of patients who have limited therapeutic options because, for example, they do not respond to primary chemotherapy.

Scrotal

Concerning or belonging to the scrotum

Seminoma

Category of germ cell tumors. Germ cell tumor that develops from the spermatogonia. The distinction between seminoma and non-seminoma is of importance for the further course of therapy.

Sensitivity

Sensitivity of a test indicates in how many diseased patients the respective disease can be detected by this test. The higher the sensitivity, the more reliably a disease is detected.

Serum

Clear liquid that separates from the solid components of blood after centrifugation.

Serum marker

Specific molecule or substance in serum that can provide information about whether a patient has a certain disease.

Somatic

Body related

Sonography

Ultrasound examination. Fast, effective diagnostic imaging procedure that is also without side effects and painfree. The procedure is based on the different densities of tissues and organs. Testicular tumors can often be visualized in this way.

Specificity

The specificity of a test indicates how likely it is that healthy people who have no disease will be identified as healthy by a test.

Staging investigation

Examination to assess the extent of tumor disease.

T


Teratoma

Category of germ cell tumors, subtype of non-seminomas. Originates from pluripotent germ cells and therefore may have different tissue types.

Testosterone

Steroid hormone with a variety of functions in the body. Produced in the testes, ovaries and adrenal cortex.

Thorax

Anatomical term for the chest area

Tumor marker

Molecules or substances in the body whose presence indicate a tumor disease. They can support primary diagnostics and therapy monitoring. Tumor markers can be proteins, nucleic acids or hormones, for example, and can be measured in a blood sample.

Tumor

Growth or a new formation (of tissue) caused by a misregulation of cell growth. Tumors can be benign or malignant.

U


V


Vascular invasion

The invasion of tumor cells into the (testicular) vessels.

W


Watch-and-wait Strategy

Therapeutic approach in which surgery is initially avoided completely and the patient is only monitored. This is also referred to as the "surveillance strategy".

watchful waiting

Close monitoring after therapy.

X


Y


Yolk sac tumor

Category of germ cell tumors, see non-seminoma.

Z


Address:

Fischkai 1
27572 Bremerhaven
Germany

Imprint & Privacy Policy:

Imprint

Privacy Policy

IMPRINT


All information according to § 5 TMG

mir | detect GmbH
Fischkai 1
27572 Bremerhaven

Contact
Telephon: +49 (0) 421.40 89 37 110
E-Mail: n.winter@mirdetect.de
Web: www.mirdetect.de

Chief Executive Officer
Dr. Nina Winter

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Register Court: Amtsgericht Bremen
Register Number: HRB 30218 HB

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Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 4.0 License
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PRIVACY POLICY


I. General Notes

The following notices provide a simple overview of what happens to your personal data when you visit our website. Personal data is any data that can be used to identify you personally (e.g., name, address, e-mail address or telephone number). For detailed information about data protection, please refer to our privacy policy listed below this text.

1. Definitions

According to the will of the European legislator, a data protection declaration should be both easy to read and easy to understand for any person. To ensure this, our privacy policy is based on the definitions set out in Article 4 of the EU General Data Protection Regulation hereinafter referred to as the "GDPR". Accordingly, we use the following terms, among others, in this privacy statement:

  • personal data any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person (hereinafter “data subject”); an identifiable natural person is one who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to an identifier such as a name, an identification number, location data, an online identifier or to one or more factors specific to the physical, physiological, genetic, mental, economic, cultural or social identity of that natural person.

  • data subject means any identified or identifiable natural person whose personal data are processed by the controller of the data.

  • processing means any operation or set of operations which is performed on personal data or on sets of personal data, whether by automated means, such as collection, recording, organization, structuring, storage, adaptation or alteration, retrieval, consultation, use, disclosure by transmission, dissemination or otherwise making available, alignment or combination, restriction, erasure or destruction.

  • restriction of processing means the marking of stored personal data with the aim of limiting their processing in the future.

  • profiling means any form of automated processing of personal data consisting of the use of personal data to evaluate certain personal aspects relating to a natural person, in particular to analyze or predict aspects concerning that natural person’s performance at work, economic situation, health, personal preferences, interests, reliability, behavior, location or movements.

  • controller means the natural or legal person, public authority, agency or other body which, alone or jointly with others, determines the purposes and means of the processing of personal data; where the purposes and means of such processing are determined by Union or Member State law, the controller or the specific criteria for its nomination may be provided for by Union or Member State law.

  • recipient means a natural or legal person, public authority, agency, or another body, to which the personal data are disclosed, whether a third party or not. However, public authorities which may receive personal data in the framework of a particular inquiry in accordance with Union or Member State law shall not be regarded as recipients; the processing of those data by those public authorities shall follow the applicable data protection rules according to the purposes of the processing.

  • third party means a natural or legal person, public authority, agency, or body other than the data subject, controller, processor, and persons who, under the direct authority of the controller or processor, are authorized to process personal data.

  • consent of the data subject means any freely given, specific, informed, and unambiguous indication of the data subject’s wishes by which he or she, by a statement or by a clear affirmative action, signifies agreement to the processing of personal data relating to him or her.

  • processor means a natural or legal person, public authority, agency, or other body which processes personal data on behalf of the controller.

2. Name and Address of the Controller

The controller within the meaning of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and other national data protection laws of the Member States as well as other provisions of data protection law is:

Controller:

mir|detect GmbH
Fischkai 1
27572 Bremerhaven

Telefon: +49 (0) 421 - 408937110
E-Mail: n.winter@mirdetect.de

3. Type of Data that we process

  • Inventory data (e.g., name, address)
  • Contact data (e.g., e-mail address, telephone number)
  • Content data (e.g., entered texts)
  • Usage data (e.g., visited websites, access time)
  • Communication data (e.g., information from end devices via which our website was accessed, IP address).

In individual cases, other data may also be the subject of processing by us. A detailed description is under II. in this privacy policy in connection with the respective type of data processing in the individual case.

4. Persons affected by Data Processing

All visitors and users of our website (hereinafter collectively referred to as "users") are affected within the meaning of the GDPR.

5. Purpose of processing

We process the data of the user in individual cases for the following purposes (the following list is not exhaustive; further down in this data protection declaration, further purposes are mentioned under II. if applicable)

  • In order for us to provide our website, including content and features
  • Communication with users of our website
  • Security measures

6. Scope of processing of personal data

As a matter of principle, we collect and use personal data of visitors to our website only to the extent that this is necessary for the provision of a functional website and our content and services. We will neither collect nor use personal data of our users without prior consent of the user. A use or collection of data of our users without a prior explicit consent will only take place exceptionally in cases where a prior obtaining of consent is not possible either for actual reasons or a legal provision allows the processing of the data in exceptional cases.

7. Legal basis for the processing of personal data

Art. 6 (1) lit a EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) forms the legal basis in cases where we obtain the express consent of the respective data subject before processing personal data.

In the case of processing of personal data that is necessary for the performance of a contract to which the data subject is a party, Art. 6 (1) lit. c GDPR serves as the legal basis. This also applies to processing operations that are necessary for the implementation of pre-contractual measures.

As far as processing of personal data is necessary for the fulfillment of a legal obligation to which our company is subject, Art. 6 (1) lit c GDPR serves as the legal basis.

If vital interests of the data subject or another natural person make it necessary to process personal data, Art. 6 (1) lit d GDPR serves as the legal basis.

If the processing is necessary to protect a legitimate interest of our company or a third party and the interests, fundamental rights and freedoms of the data subject do not override the first-mentioned interest, Art. 6 (1) lit f GDPR serves as the legal basis for the processing (e.g., When using web hosts, etc.).

8. Data Deletion and Storage Duration

The personal data of the data subject shall be deleted or blocked as soon as the purpose of the storage ceases to apply. Storage may take place in accordance with Art. 6 (1) p. 1 lit c GDPR if the purpose of storage has ceased to apply, if this has been provided for by the European or national legislator in Union regulations, laws, or other provisions to which the controller is subject. Blocking or deletion of data will also take place if a storage period prescribed by the aforementioned standards expires (for example, the legislator provides for the retention of personal data in tax law, but also in commercial law; this is regulated in the HGB and the AO; received commercial or business letters must be retained for 6 years).

II. Collection and Storage of personal Data and the Nature and Purpose of their use

1. Visit the Website

1.1. Description and Scope of Data Processing

Each time you visit our website, our system automatically collects data and information from the computer system of the calling computer. This usually is done by the browser used on the user's device automatically forwarding information to the server of our website, whereby this information is temporarily stored in the so-called log file. This regards the following information, which is collected without your active participation solely through the transmission of the browser used by you and is stored on the server of our website until automatic deletion afterwards:

  • IP address of the computer in use
  • Time and date off the visit
  • Name and URL of the retrieved file
  • Website from which the server of our website was accessed (referrer URL)
  • browser used and, if applicable, the operating system of the user's computer as well as the name of the user's access provider.

We are processing this information for the following purposes:

  • Ensuring a smooth connection of the website
  • Ensuring a comfortable use of our website
  • evaluation of system security and stability as well as
  • for further administrative purposes
1.2. Legal basis for data processing

Legal basis for data processing is Art. 6 (1) lit. f GDPR.

1.3. Purpose of data processing

The temporary storage of the IP address by the system is necessary to enable delivery of the website to the user's computer. For this purpose, the IP address of the user must be stored for the duration of the session.

1.4. Duration of storage

The data is deleted as soon as it is no longer required to achieve the purpose for which it was collected. In the case of the collection of data for the provision of the website, this is the case when the respective session has ended.

1.5. Possibilities of objection and elimination

The collection of data for the provision of the website and the storage of the data in log files is necessary for the operation of the website. Consequently, there is no possibility of objection on the part of the user.

2. contact by email

2.1. Description and scope of data processing

You are welcome to contact us via the email address provided by us. If you contact us by email, we will store the personal data of the user transmitted to us with the email. We are not passing on the data to third parties in this context. We use the data exclusively for the processing of the conversation by us.

2.2. Legal basis for data processing

Legal basis for data processing for the purpose of establishing contact is Art. 6 (1) P. 1 lit. a GDPR in connection with the consent of the user.

2.3. Purpose of data processing

If the user reached out by e-mail, this constitutes the necessary legitimate interest in the processing of the data.

2.4. Duration of storage

We delete the data as soon as they are no longer required to achieve the purpose for which they were collected. Regarding data sent by e-mail, this means that deletion takes place when the respective conversation with the user concerned has ended. We consider the conversation with the user to have ended in this sense as soon as the circumstances indicate that the matter in question has been conclusively clarified.

2.5. Possibilities of objection and elimination

The user has the possibility to revoke his consent to the processing of personal data at any time. If the user contacts us by email, he can object to the storage of his personal data at any time. In such a case, it is not possible to continue the conversation. All personal data stored while contacting us will be deleted in this case.

3. Contact via contact form
3.1. description and scope of data processing

A polite approach as well as trouble-free contact with our customers is especially important to us. Therefore, we offer the user a contact form in addition to the usual contact options, which you as a user please refer to our imprint.

It is possible to contact us via the contact form on the website in which personal and other data of the user is requested. As a user, please refer directly to the contact form to find out exactly what data this is. There, at the appropriate place, you can see exactly which data is requested.

If the user enters their personal data (such as name, address, contact information) and other data at the appropriate place in the form, these will be stored by us to be able to process the user's request. Here, too, you as a user naturally have the right to demand information about exactly what data we have stored about you and the right to have this data deleted immediately upon the user's request. The input fields marked with "*" in the respective form are mandatory fields that the user must fill out in order to make the contact request.

3.2. Legal basis for data processing

Legal basis for data processing for the purpose of establishing contact via contact form is Art. 6 (1) P. 1 lit. a GDPR in connection with the consent of the user.

3.3. Purpose of data processing

If the user contacted us by contact form, this constitutes the necessary legitimate interest in the processing of the data.

3.4. Duration of storage

We delete the data as soon as they are no longer required to achieve the purpose for which they were collected. Regarding data sent by contact form, this means that deletion takes place when the respective conversation with the user concerned has ended. We consider the conversation with the user to have ended in this sense as soon as the circumstances indicate that the matter in question has been conclusively clarified.

3.5. Possibilities of objection and elimination

The user has the possibility to revoke their consent to the processing of personal data at any time. If the user contacts us by contact form, they can object to the storage of his personal data at any time. In such a case, it is not possible to continue the conversation. All personal data stored while contacting us will be deleted in this case.

4. Use of cookies

4.1. Description and scope of data processing

In certain situations, we use so-called cookies. A “cookie” is a small text file that is stored in the Internet browser or by the Internet browser on the user's computer system. A cookie can only contain information that we ourselves send to your computer - private data cannot be accessed with it. If you have accepted the cookies on our website, we do not have access to your personal information. With the help of cookies, we are able to identify your computer and to recognize your computer when you visit our website again, thanks to a characteristic string of characters that makes it possible to uniquely identify the browser when you visit the website again. Cookies make our offer more user-friendly, more effective, and safer, as well as help to analyze usage patterns and structures of our website and thus give us clues for optimization according to user behavior. These cookies are deleted as soon as you end the session or close your browser.

4.2. Legal basis for data processing

The legal basis for processing personal data using cookies is Art. 6 (1) lit f GDPR.

The legal basis for processing personal data using technical essential cookies is Art. 6 (1) lit f GDPR.

The legal basis for the processing of personal data using cookies for analysis purposes is Art. 6 (1) lit. a GDPR if the user has consented to this.

4.3. Purpose of data processing

The purpose of using technical essential cookies is to simplify using the website for the user. Some functions of our website can not be offered without using cookies. For these it is necessary that the browser is recognized after changing pages.

4.4. Duration of storage and possibilities of objection and elimination

ookies are stored on the user's computer and transmitted from it to our site. Therefore, you as a user have full control over the use of cookies. By changing the settings in your Internet browser, you can disable or restrict the transmission of cookies. Cookies that have already been stored can be deleted at any time. This can also be done automatically. If cookies are deactivated for our website, it may no longer be possible to use all functions of the website to their full extent. As a user of our website, please refer to the following links for the cookie settings for the individual browsers:

Internet Explorer™: http://windows.microsoft.com/de-DE/windows-vista/Block-or-allow-cookies
Safari™: https://support.apple.com/kb/ph21411?locale=de_DE
Chrome™: http://support.google.com/chrome/bin/answer.py?hl=de&hlrm=en&answer=95647
Firefox™ https://support.mozilla.org/de/kb/cookies-erlauben-und-ablehnen
Opera™ : http://help.opera.com/Windows/10.20/de/cookies.html

5. Using the MapBox service
5.1. Description and scope of data processing

We use MapBox API on our website. This is a service of MapBox Inc, 740 15th Street NW, 5th Floor, Washingtons, District of Columbia 20005, USA (hereinafter referred to as MapBox). We use the service of MapBox to visualize geographical information. When using MapBox, MapBox also collects, processes, and uses data about the use of the map function by users of our website. By using the MapBox API, information about the use of this website, including the user's IP address, may be transmitted to MapBox in the USA. MapBox provides in its "Terms of Services" which can be found at the following link: https://www.mapbox.com/tos/#maps
Further information about the use of MapBox and about the data obtained by MapBox from the user. We cannot provide any binding information as to whether and, if so, to which third parties MapBox discloses personal data of the user that MapBox obtains in connection with the use of the MapBox API service. If such processing or disclosure of your data is not desired, you as a user have the option to prevent this (for more details, see 5.4. below).

5. 2. Legal basis for processing data

The legal basis for the processing of personal data using MapBox is Art. 6 (1) lit. f GDPR. Our legitimate interest is to improve the functionality of our website.

5. 3. Purpose of data processing

The above-described transmission of data to MapBox or the general usage of MapBox is for the economical operation of our website. Furthermore, we use MapBox to visually show you, the user, our location.

5. 4. Duration of storage, possibilities of objection and elimination

We would like to point out that we do not have any knowledge of which data are specifically transmitted to MapBox and how MapBox uses them or how long MapBox stores them. If you as a user of our website do not agree to this processing of your personal data by MapBox, you have the option of preventing the installation of cookies by making the appropriate settings in your Internet browser. For details on this check in this data protection declaration under the point “Cookies”. If you as a user act accordingly and prevent cookies, the use of the MapBox service via our website is no longer possible. MapBox offers further information on the collection and use of data as well as on the rights of users and ways to protect the privacy of users under the following link: https://www.mapbox.com/privacy/

III. Disclosure of data to third parties and processors

1.1. General information

In individual cases, we may disclose your personal data (to processors or to third parties, such as in connection with the hosting of our website), transmit it to them or otherwise grant them access to the data. Such disclosure or transfer of your data will only take place in the cases mentioned in this privacy policy and only for the purposes stated therein. If we commission third parties with the processing of personal data, this is done exclusively within the framework of a GDPR-compliant commissioned processing based on a so-called "commissioned processing agreement". The legal basis for data processing in the case of commissioned processing is Art. 28 GDPR.

1.2. Hosting of our website

If we pass on personal data of the user in connection with hosting services concerning our website to a third-party provider, we point out that the transfer for the purpose of hosting is necessary to present our website. We were thereby within the context of balancing interests, mainly our justified interests in an accurate presentation of our online offer. We would like to point out that all data provided to us in connection with the use of our website, in particular in connection with filling in online forms provided for this purpose (for example, contact form, online meter reading notification, etc.) are processed on the servers of the third-party provider for the purpose of hosting. We would also like to point out that the corresponding service provider, which has taken over the hosting of our website, is based within a member state of the European Union or the European Economic Area.

IV. Rights of the data subject

The following list includes all rights of data subjects under the GDPR. Rights that have no relevance for your own website do not need to be mentioned. In this respect, the listing can be shortened. If your personal data is processed, you are a data subject within the meaning of the GDPR and you are entitled to the following rights vis-à-vis the controller:

1. Right to information pursuant to Art. 15 GDPR

You may request confirmation from the controller as to whether personal data concerning you is being processed by us. If such processing is taking place, you may request the following information from the controller:

  1. The purposes for which the personal data are processed;
  2. The categories of personal data which are processed;
  3. The recipients or categories of recipients to whom the personal data concerning you have been or will be disclosed;
  4. The planned duration of the storage of the personal data concerning you or, if specific information on this is not possible, criteria for determining the storage period;
  5. The existence of a right to authorization or erasure of the personal data concerning you, a right to restriction of processing;
  6. The existence of a right of appeal to a supervisory authority;
  7. Any available information about the origin of the data if the personal data are not collected from the data subject;
  8. the existence of automated decision-making, including profiling, pursuant to Article 22(1) and (4) of the GDPR and, at least in these cases, meaningful information about the logic involved and the scope and intended effects of such processing for the data subject.

You have the right to request information about whether the personal data concerning you is shared with a third country or an international organization. In this context, you may request to be informed about the appropriate guaranties pursuant to Art. 46 GDPR in connection with the transfer.

2. Right to rectification according to Art. 16 GDPR

You have a right to rectification and/or completion vis-à-vis the controller if the personal data processed concerning you is inaccurate or incomplete. The controller shall conduct the rectification without delay.

3. Right to erasure according to Art. 17 GDPR ("right to be forgotten")

a) Obligation to erase

You can demand from the controller that your personal data shall be erased without delay. The controller is obliged to erase this data without delay if one of the following reasons applies:

  1. The personal data concerning you are no longer necessary for the purposes for which they were collected or otherwise processed.
  2. You revoke your consent on which the processing was based pursuant to Art. 6(1)(a) or Art. 9(2)(a) GDPR and there is no other legal basis for processing.
  3. You object to the processing pursuant to Article 21(1) of the GDPR and there are no overriding legitimate grounds for the processing, or you object to the processing pursuant to Article 21(2) of the GDPR.
  4. The personal data concerning you have been processed unlawfully.
  5. The erasure of the personal data concerning you is necessary for compliance with a legal obligation under Union or Member State law to which the controller is subject.
  6. The personal data concerning you was collected in relation to information society services offered pursuant to Art. 8 (1) GDPR.

b) Information to third parties

If the controller has made the personal data concerning you public and is obliged to erase it pursuant to Article 17(1) of the GDPR, it shall take reasonable steps, including technical measures, having regard to the available technology and the cost of implementation, to inform data controllers processing the personal data that you, as the data subject, have requested that they erase all links to, or copies or replications of, those personal data.

c) Exceptions

The right to erasure does not exist to the extent that processing is necessary

  1. to exercise the right to freedom of expression and information;
  2. to comply with a legal obligation which requires processing under Union or Member State law to which the controller is subject, or for the performance of a task carried out in the public interest or in the exercise of official authority vested in the controller,
  3. for reasons of public interest in the field of public health pursuant to Art. 9(2)(h) and (i) and Art. 9(3) of the GDPR;
  4. for archiving scientific or historical research purposes in the public interest or for static purposes pursuant to Art. 89(1) of the GDPR, where the right referred to in section a) is likely to render impossible or seriously prejudice the achievement of the purposes of such processing, or
  5. for the establishment, exercise or defense of legal claims.

4. Right to restriction of processing according to Art. 18 GDPR

You may request the restriction of the processing of personal data concerning you under the following conditions:

  1. if you contest the accuracy of the personal data concerning you for a period enabling the controller to verify the accuracy of the personal data;
  2. the processing is unlawful and you object to the erasure of the personal data and request instead the restriction of the use of the personal data;
  3. the controller no longer needs the personal data for the purposes of the processing, but you need them for the establishment, exercise or defense of legal claims; or
  4. if you object to the processing pursuant to Art. 21 (1) GDPR and it is not yet clear whether the legitimate grounds of the controller outweigh your grounds.

Where the processing of personal data concerning you has been restricted, the data may be processed, except for storage, only with your consent or for the establishment, exercise, or defense of legal claims or for the protection of the rights of another natural or legal person or for reasons of important public interest of the Union or a Member State.
If the processing has been restricted in accordance with the above conditions, you will be informed by the controller before the restriction is lifted.

5. Right to information (obligation to notify) according to Art. 19 GDPR

If you have asserted the right to rectification, erasure or restriction of processing against the controller, the controller is obliged to notify all recipients to whom the personal data concerning you have been disclosed of this rectification or erasure of the data or restriction of processing, unless this proves impossible or involves a disproportionate effort. It is your right that the controller informs you about these recipients.

6. Right to data portability according to Art. 20 GDPR

You have the right to receive the personal data concerning you that you have provided to the controller in a structured, common, and machine-readable format. In addition, you have the right to transfer this data to another controller without hindrance by the controller to whom the personal data was provided, provided that

  1. the processing is based on consent pursuant to Article 6(1)(a) GDPR or Article 9(2)(1) GDPR or on a contract pursuant to Article 6(1)(b) GDPR and
  2. the processing is carried out with the aid of automated procedures.

In exercising this right, you also have the right to obtain that the personal data concerning you be transferred directly from one controller to another controller, as far as this is technically feasible. This must not affect freedoms and rights of other persons. The right to data portability does not apply to processing of personal data necessary for the performance of a task conducted in the public interest or in the exercise of official authority vested in the controller.

7. Right of objection according to Art. 21 GDPR

You have the right to object at any time, on grounds relating to your particular situation, to the processing of personal data relating to you which is carried out on the basis of Art. 6(1)(e) or (f) GDPR; this also applies to profiling based on these provisions. The controller will no longer process the personal data concerning you unless it can demonstrate compelling legitimate grounds for the processing which override your interests, rights and freedoms, or the processing serves the purpose of asserting, exercising, or defending legal claims. If the personal data concerning you are processed for the purposes of direct marketing, you have the right to object at any time to processing of the personal data concerning you for the purposes of such marketing; this also applies to profiling, insofar as it is related to such direct marketing, the personal data concerning you will no longer be processed for these purposes. You have the possibility, in connection with the use of information society services - notwithstanding Directive 2002/58/EC - to exercise your right to object by means of automated procedures using technical specifications. To exercise your right to object, it is sufficient if you send us an e-mail to the following e-mail address: n.winter@mirdetect.de

8. Right to revoke the declaration of consent under data protection law according to §7 (3) GDPR

You have the right to revoke your declaration of consent under data protection law at any time. The revocation of consent does not affect the lawfulness of the processing carried out based on the consent until the revocation. To exercise your right to object, it is sufficient to send us an e-mail to the following e-mail address: n.winter@mirdetect.de

9. Automated decision-making on a case-by-case basis, including profiling

ou have the right not to be subject to a decision based solely on automated processing - including profiling - which produces legal effects concerning you or similarly significantly affects you. This does not apply if the decision

  1. is necessary for the conclusion or performance of a contract between you and the controller,
  2. is permitted by Union or Member State law to which the controller is subject and that law contains adequate measures to safeguard your rights and freedoms and your legitimate interests, or
  3. is made with your explicit consent.

However, these decisions may not be based on special categories of personal data pursuant to Art. 9(1) GDPR, unless Art. 9(2)(a) or (g) GDPR applies, and appropriate measures have been taken to protect the rights and freedoms as well as your legitimate interests. With regard to the cases referred to in (1) and (3), the controller shall take reasonable steps to safeguard the rights and freedoms of, and the legitimate interests of, the data subject, which shall include, at least, the right to obtain the intervention of a person on the part of the controller, to express his or her point of view and to contest the decision.

10. Right to complain to a supervisory authority pursuant to Art. 77 GDPR

Without prejudice to any other administrative or judicial remedy, you have the right to lodge a complaint with a supervisory authority, in particular in the Member State of your residence, place of work or the place of the alleged infringement, if you consider that the processing of personal data concerning you infringes the GDPR. The supervisory authority to which the complaint has been lodged shall inform the complainant of the status and outcome of the complaint, including the possibility of a judicial remedy under Article 78 GDPR.

V. Data security

We use appropriate technical and organizational security measures to protect your data against intentional or accidental manipulation by third parties, partial or complete loss, destruction or against unauthorized access by third parties. We attach great importance to constantly adapting and further developing the security measures we use to the state of the art.